Brexit Agreement Meaning
Britain is in talks to continue its participation in these agreements and has so far concluded continuity agreements with a dozen countries. Although the EU has been increasing for the past three years, it is not certain that this will continue beyond this point. In practice, however, experts believe that the UK could most likely reach a mutual agreement with the EU, where the government guarantees to increase payments to British pensioners living abroad if EU countries agree to do the same for their pensioners residing in the UK. Negotiations began on June 19, 2017.  Negotiating groups have been set up on three themes: the rights of UNION citizens residing in the United Kingdom and vice versa; The outstanding FINANCIAL commitments of the United Kingdom to the EU; and the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.    A partial agreement was reached in December 2017. It ensured that there was no hard border in Ireland, protected the rights of British citizens to EU and EU citizens in the UK, and estimated the financial settlement at between $35 billion and $39 billion.  May stressed: “Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed.”  As a result of this partial agreement, EU heads of state and government agreed to begin the second phase of negotiations: discussion on future relations, a transition period and a possible trade agreement.  The potential impact on the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland has been challenged.
Since 2005, the border has been essentially invisible.  After Brexit, it will be the only land border between Britain and the EU.  All parties involved agree to avoid a hard border as it risks undermining the Good Friday agreement that ended the conflict in Northern Ireland.    To avoid this, the EU proposed a “backstop agreement” (the Northern Ireland Memorandum of Understanding) that would have kept the United Kingdom in the customs union and would have kept Northern Ireland in certain aspects of the internal market until a lasting solution was found.  The backstop was part of the withdrawal agreement, but was replaced in the revised agreement.  “This democratic support is a cornerstone of our new approach,” Barnier said. “Given that this new proposal should no longer be replaced by a subsequent agreement between the EU and the UK, it is a good idea to ensure its approval.” The new rules are intended as a permanent state and not as a “backstop” that could be applied until an alternative is developed to replace them. May has called for a “hard” Brexit, meaning Britain would leave the EU`s internal market and customs union and then negotiate a trade deal to settle its future relations.
These negotiations took place during a transition period that will begin with the ratification of a divorce agreement. The Conservatives` poor performance in the june 2017 snap election has called into question popular support for a hard Brexit, and many have speculated in the press that the government could take a softer line. The Brexit White Paper published in July 2018 revealed plans for a softer Brexit. It was too soft for many MPs in their party and too bold for the EU. In the run-up to the general election on 12 December 2019, the Conservative Party has promised to leave the EU with the withdrawal agreement negotiated in October 2019. Labor has promised to renegotiate the above-mentioned agreements and hold a referendum so that voters can choose and stay between the renegotiated deal. The Liberal Democrats have pledged to revoke Article 50, while the SNP intended to hold a second referendum, with Article 50 revoked if the alternative was an exit without a deal. The DUP supported Brexit, but wanted to change parts of Northern Ireland that it was not happy with. Plaid Cymru and the Greens backed a second referendum and felt that the UK should stay in the EU.