Northern American Free Trade Agreement
Chapter 19 of NAFTA was a trade litigation mechanism that subjects anti-dumping and compensatory tariff (AD/CVD) rules to binational panel review or conventional judicial review.  In the United States, for example, review of decisions by authorities imposing anti-dumping and countervailing duties is generally referred to the U.S. International Court of Commerce, a Section III court. However, the NAFTA parties were given the opportunity to appeal decisions against binational bodies made up of five citizens of the two NAFTA countries.  Participants were generally lawyers with experience in international commercial law. Since NAFTA did not contain physical provisions for AD/CVD, the panel was tasked with determining whether the final decisions of the agencies to which AD/CVD were parties were consistent with domestic national law. Chapter 19 was an anomaly in international dispute resolution because it did not apply international law, but required a body made up of individuals from many countries to review the application of a country`s domestic law. [Citation required] A 2014 study on the impact of NAFTA on U.S. trade employment and investment showed that the U.S. trade deficit with Mexico and Canada increased from $17.0 billion to $177.2 billion between 1993 and 2013 and supplanted 851,700 U.S. jobs. (84) Sixth, the agreement provided business travellers with easy access to all three countries.
On September 30, 2018, the deadline for negotiations between Canada and the United States, an interim agreement was reached between the two countries, thus retaining the trilateral pact when the Trump administration submits the agreement to Congress.  The new name of the agreement was the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and came into force on July 1, 2020.   “The USMCA will provide our workers, farmers, ranchers and businesses with a high-level trade agreement that will lead to freer markets, fairer trade and robust economic growth in our region. It will strengthen the middle class and create good, well-paying jobs and new opportunities for the nearly half a billion people who call North America home. After U.S. President Donald Trump took office in January 2017, he tried to replace NAFTA with a new agreement and began negotiations with Canada and Mexico. In September 2018, the United States, Mexico and Canada reached an agreement to replace NAFTA with the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), and the three countries had ratified it until March 2020. Nafta remained in effect until the implementation of the USMCA.  In April 2020, Canada and Mexico declared the United States.